The Constitution of India is a document that outlines the fundamental principles and rules that govern the country’s political, social, and economic framework. It is the supreme law of the land and has been in effect since January 26, 1950.
The Constitution of India is one of the longest and most comprehensive constitutions in the world. It comprises a preamble, 22 parts, and 395 articles. The following is an overview of the Constitution’s main features:
Preamble: The Preamble of the Constitution of India sets out the basic ideals and objectives that the country seeks to achieve. It declares India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, and promises justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity to all citizens.
Part I: The Union and its territory This part deals with the establishment of the Union of India and its territory. It includes provisions for the admission, alteration, or abolition of states and territories in the country.
Part II: Citizenship This part outlines the provisions for citizenship in India. It defines who is a citizen of India and the rights and duties of Indian citizens.
Part III: Fundamental Rights This part enshrines the fundamental rights of the citizens of India. It includes provisions for the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, right to life and personal liberty, right against exploitation, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.
Part IV: Directive Principles of State Policy This part includes the principles that the State is expected to follow while making policies and enacting laws. These principles are not enforceable in a court of law but are considered to be fundamental in the governance of the country.
Part V: The Union This part deals with the provisions relating to the executive, legislative, and judiciary of the Union of India.
Part VI: The States This part deals with the provisions relating to the executive, legislative, and judiciary of the individual states in India.
Part VII: Union territories This part outlines the provisions for the administration of Union territories in India.
Part VIII: The Union Territories and the Special Areas This part deals with the provisions relating to the administration of tribal areas in India.
Part IX: The Panchayats This part provides for the establishment of Panchayats in rural areas and outlines their functions and powers.
Part IXA: The Municipalities This part provides for the establishment of municipalities in urban areas and outlines their functions and powers.
Part X: Scheduled and Tribal Areas This part deals with the provisions relating to the administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas in India.
Part XI: Relations between the Union and the States This part outlines the distribution of powers and responsibilities between the Union and the States.
Part XII: Finance, Property, Contracts, and Suits This part deals with the financial and property-related provisions of the Constitution.
Part XIII: Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the Territory of India This part deals with the provisions relating to trade, commerce, and intercourse within the territory of India.
Part XIV: Services under the Union and the States This part outlines the provisions for the recruitment and conditions of service of public servants in India.
Part XIVA: Tribunals This part provides for the establishment of tribunals for the speedy and efficient disposal of certain types of disputes.
Part XV: Elections This part deals with the provisions for the conduct of elections in India.
Part XVI: Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes This part provides for the special provisions relating to certain classes, such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes.
Part XVII: Official Language This part deals with the provisions relating to the official language of India.